The Hub Assembly is Built.

Here is the drawing that I prepared for this assembly and the physical result. The beams are aluminum extrusions from . The beams have "T"-slots on each face to enable the beams to be connected to each other or to something else. The corner connectors and hardware are also from 8020. The weight is 9.4 pounds.

Overview of the Fiber-Optic Michelson-Morley Experiment

According to the Ether Theory of the 1800's, the motion of a hypothesized Ether past the Earth affects the speed of light. In 1887 an experiment was done that shocked physicists because it was inconsistent with the Ether Theory, the dominant theory of that time. It is called the Michelson-Morley (M-M) Experiment.

Following this experimental rejection of the Ether Theory, relativity theories were developed to explain the 1887 M-M results. Beginning at the same time, M-M experiments were performed with various modifications. Almost all results were consistent with relativity. Mainstream physicists would say that all valid experiments are consistent with relativity. By 1920, Relativity theory was generally accepted and Ether theory was discredited.

Based upon 100 years of such experimentation, I have identified two parameters that unexpectedly affect the M-M results. These parameters are characteristics of the light path within the apparatus of the M-M experiment.
  1. The mass density: Vacuum results are consistent with relativity; dense materials are generally not consistent.
  2. The length of light path: Short light path results are consistent with special relativity; long light paths are generally not consistent.
I have decided to test these conjectures by performing an experiment.

The objective of this experiment is to test the combination of mass density and light path lengths most likely to contradict relativity.  Based on the above pattern, this would have a dense material in the light path and a long light path.

This combination of parameters can be achieved by using optical fiber rather than the mirrors used in earlier M-M experiments.
  1. The core of an optical fiber, where the light travels, is typically glass. The mass density of glass is far larger than that of a lab vacuum or ambient air, which were used in most earlier M-M experiments.
  2. Optical fiber enables long light paths to be formed that are more immune to thermal and mechanical fluctuations than mirror systems.
In addition, fiber optic systems do not require the demanding alignment process that is required by mirror systems. Finally, the fiber optic approach is far less expensive than the mirror approach. See: Component Cost for Experimental Apparatus.

This experiment does employ a fiber optic light path, as described. The straight arm length is 16 feet.  I call it a Fiber-Optic Michelson-Morley Experiment (FOMMX).

For more detail on the above argument, see FOMMX Grant Proposal to NSF.
For a full mainstream description of the Michelson-Morley experiment, see the Wikipedia.

Installing the Hoist

The Fiber Optic Michelson-Morley sensor is two “arms”, or straight lengths, of optical fiber. These will each be 14' long and set perpendicular to one another in a horizontal plane. These arms will rotate as a unit in the horizontal plane when operating.

The purpose of the hoist is to lower the interferometer for maintenance (and initially, construction) at floor level and raise it to the ceiling for collecting data. This has the side-benefit of clearing the the floor area for general use while collecting data, which will be almost all of the time.
Installing the hoist in the lab. The hoist installed and ready for action.

This marks the beginning of construction of the FOMMX apparatus.

The next item to be constructed will be the servo motor assembly. This will attach between two I-Joists below the hoist. The hoist will lift the assembly (and the interferometer) up and lower it down.

Initially, I will have to use a ladder to lock the motor assembly in its operating position or release it. Once I do that a few times, I will probably get some bright idea to avoid using the ladder.

On Mechanical Structure of FOMMX

The apparatus of a Michelson-Morley experiment measures the difference in the speed of light in two perpendicular directions and repeats this measurement over a variety of orientations. These results are combined to show the velocity of a (6D) continuum (previously 3D called aether) through the solar system.

The general approach is to direct light along two perpendicular arms and interferometrically measure the difference in speeds between the light-paths in the arms. The arms are horizontal and rotate about a vertical axis a few times a minute. The horizontal plane of rotation sweeps through a large portion of the sky each day. These rotations provide the variety of orientations needed for calculations.

The sense element of the arms is an optical fiber which lies in a tray, which in turn lies in a clear plexiglass tube 3 inches diameter. The straight length, end to end, of the fiber is about 16 feet, a bit longer than the straight light path of Dayton Miller's apparatus. One arm includes two 8 foot lengths of tube joined to the hub. The sixteen foot arms tubes are supported by beams that are aluminum extrusions. The rotation of the arms is driven by a servo-motor attached to the ceiling of the lab. The motor-shaft is connected to a three foot vertical shaft, the bottom of which is rigidly connected to the hub.

The hub holds a number of components in addition to the two 16 foot arms. In addition to the arms, it holds a DFB diode laser, photodetector, data logging computer, and fiber optic components. The components that produce heat are placed above fiber components to avoid potential thermal variations in the fiber that might affect the interferometric signal. 

Component Cost for Experimental Apparatus (3/2/18)

Based on some theoretical work, I have identified an experiment where setting experimental parameters can cause results to either support or refute Special Relativity.

The experiment is called a Fiber-Optic Michelson-Morley Experiment or FOMMX. Its status is that I have just completed a detailed design of the apparatus, not yet fully documented. This was a grueling quick-study of diode lasers and optical fiber as applied to commercial products for laboratories. The analysis includes detailed component costs to set up the apparatus and begin collecting data and is estimated at $7,317.15. Plus or minus. Probably plus.

Next up for me on FOMMX is finishing the drawings for the 3D printed components and the mechanical assembly. David Ostby has already started on these.

This post is the first in a new series. I will use this log to record plans and progress on FOMMX.

2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded for Quasicrystals

The 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the discovery, in 1982, of Quasicrystals.

Normal crystals have a periodic structure in 3D space. This meant that if the crystal lattice was translated without rotation, so that one point of the moved lattice line was aligned with the position of a corresponding point of the old position, then every point of the new lattice would line up with some point of the old position. Quasicrystals have a non-periodic structure in 3D. This means that the stated condition is not true for the Quasicrystal. 

A standard method of analysing crystals involved bouncing electrons off of them and studying the resultant patterns. Such patterns did not result from bouncing electrons off of glass or liquids, only off of crystals. When this procedure was applied to Quasicrystals, it revealed sharp points characteristic of crystals.

Quasicrystals produce patterns of sharp points, as crystals do, but the symmetry of these points is forbidden in 3D space.
A "six-dimensional cubic lattice" can be projected onto a three-dimensional Euclidean space so that the lattice points coincide with those of a Quasicrystal. (See and search for "six-dimensional") 

Mainstream physicists do not attach any physical significance to this mathematical fact since our space is considered to be three-dimensional (or four-dimensional if relativistic space-time is considered). The six-dimensional Euclidean space has no connection to string theory or any other theory known to me.

In my own theory, the mathematical fact of projection from six to three Euclidean dimensions is simply the physical arrangement of atomic centers in six dimensions. My theory is called A Unified Field Theory in 6 Spatial Dimensions (UFT6). It was conceived before Quasicrystals were discovered. 

I consider Quasicrystals to be evidence in favor of a 6D space, and of UFT6. Such evidence, of course, is not proof that 6D space exists. But it is dramatically simpler than the lengths one must go to to explain Quasicrystals in only three dimensions.

(This post was updated and moved on 11/6/2014. -sz)
(Updated 2/21/2018. -sz}